International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences

ISSN: 2455-7749

Geostatistical Analysis on Spatial Variability of Soil Nutrients in Vertisols of Deccan Plateau Region of North Karnataka, India

Vinod Tamburi
Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, India.

Amba Shetty
Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, India.

S. Shrihari
Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, India.


Received on August 13, 2019
Accepted on December 06, 2019


Different methods of land use and management have a significant effect on soil properties distribution. Understanding of variations in soil nutrients in agricultural land use is important. An increase in extraction of nutrients, soil degradation, and management of nutrients is leading to a decline in quality of vertisols across the Deccan plateau of India. Though there are studies on spatial variability of vertisols macronutrients, studies on available calcium (Ca) and available magnesium (Mg) are rare. This study is conducted in Gulbarga taluk, north Karnataka, India, to evaluate the variability of soil pH, Ca, Mg, and Zinc (Zn). A total of 78 samples of soils are collected at 0 to 15 cm depth based on the accessibility and distribution of field patterns. Four subsamples represent a single composite sample. Agilent 4200 MP-AES (Microwave Plasma-Atomic. Emission Spectrometer) was used for determining the concentration of soil nutrients. The soil nutrients represent wide variation in coefficient of variation (CV) with a value of 6 % (for pH) to 70.9 % (for Zn). The soil pH showed a significantly positive correlation to Ca and a negative correlation to Mg. Geostatistical investigation indicates spherical model is the best fit for all nutrients. Except for Ca, all nutrients showed moderate spatial dependence. Ordinary kriging is used to generate spatial variability maps. The maps of spatial variability are highly variable in nutrients content and indicate that site-specific management needs to be taken by local authorities and improve the livelihood of marginal farmers and also for sustainable agriculture.

Keywords- Vertisols, Geostatistics, Spatial variability, Soil nutrients.


Tamburi, V., Shetty, A., & Shrihari, S. (2020). Geostatistical Analysis on Spatial Variability of Soil Nutrients in Vertisols of Deccan Plateau Region of North Karnataka, India. International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences, 5(2), 283-295.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing interests.


We acknowledge and express our gratitude to the Chief Scientist of BioMedware, Dr. Pierre Goovaerts, for his analytical assistance in SpaceStat Software. We thank the professor of the University of Horticultural Science Bagalkot, Dr. M.S. Nagaraja, for support in the laboratory.


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