International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences

ISSN: 2455-7749

Optimal Sizing and Control of Solar PV-PEMFC Hybrid Power Systems

Vipin Das
Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, M. N. National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Prayagraj, India.

Pitchai Karuppanan
Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, M. N. National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Prayagraj, India.

Asheesh Kumar Singh
Electrical Engineering Department, M. N. National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Prayagraj, India.

Padmanabh Thakur
Electrical Engineering Department, Graphic Era (Deemed to be University), Dehradun, India.


Received on April 13, 2021
Accepted on June 16, 2021


This paper explores several possible hybridized techniques to supply electrical energy at remote locations where the utility grid extension is found uneconomical. In this work, diesel-generator (DG) is combined with the various renewable energy resources (RES) and multiple storage facilities, such as (i) proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and hydrogen energy storage (HES), (ii) PEMFC, HES, and Solar PV, and (iii) HES, Solar PV, PEMFC, HES, and battery storage system (BSS), respectively, to achieve the best hybrid solution to supply electrical power in remotely located area efficiently. The Homer Pro software developed by the national renewable energy laboratory is used in this paper for conducting the proposed analysis. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem to minimize the cost and greenhouse gas emissions. Three performance indices or objective functions, namely net present cost (NPC), levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and unmet load, have been evaluated for these three hybridizations to determine the best alternative to overcome the energy crunch, which is existing especially in remotely located area. The comparative analysis of the estimated performance parameters has revealed that the hybridization of DG with Solar PV, PEMFC, HES, & BSS provides smaller values of NPC (in US $), LCOE (in US $/kWh), and unmet load. Furthermore, hybridization of DG with Solar PV, PEMFC, HES, & BSS results in the lowest pollutant emission with zero unmet loads and energy wastage. Therefore, in this study, hybridization of DG, Solar PV, PEMFC, HES, & BSS is recommended as the best alternative to supply electrical power efficiently and economically to remote areas. In this stand-alone work mode of operation of DG is considered as a reference system and named ‘Combination 1’. The LCOE and NPC of the best suitable HPS are obtained as 0.50193 US $/kWh and 35200000 US $, respectively. As a result, the system's emission is reduced by 94% compared with the base case (combination 1).

Keywords- Homer pro, Levelized cost of energy, Net present cost, Solar PV, PEMFC.


Das, V., Karuppanan, P., Singh, A. K. & Thakur, P. (2021). Optimal Sizing and Control of Solar PV-PEMFC Hybrid Power Systems. International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences, 6(4), 1137-1156.

Conflict of Interest

We confirm that there is no conflict of interest to declare for publication of this paper.


We would like to express our sincere thanks to the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India, for the grant no: [34/14/53/2014-BRNS].


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