International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences

ISSN: 2455-7749

Harris Hawks Optimization for Optimum Design of Truss Structures with Discrete Variables

Harris Hawks Optimization for Optimum Design of Truss Structures with Discrete Variables

Mustafa Al-Bazoon
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, The University of Misan, Amarah, Maysan, Iraq.

DOI https://doi.org/10.33889/IJMEMS.2021.6.4.069

Received on January 21, 2021
Accepted on June 15, 2021


This article investigates the use of Harris Hawks Optimization (HHO) to solve planar and spatial trusses with design variables that are discrete. The original HHO has been used to solve continuous design variables problems. However, HHO is formulated to solve optimization problems with discrete variables in this research. HHO is a population-based metaheuristic algorithm that simulates the chasing style and the collaborative behavior of predatory birds Harris hawks. The mathematical model of HHO uses a straightforward formulation and does not require tuning of algorithmic parameters and it is a robust algorithm in exploitation. The performance of HHO is evaluated using five benchmark structural problems and the final designs are compared with ten state-of-the-art algorithms. The statistical outcomes (average and standard deviation of final designs) show that HHO is quite consistent and robust in solving truss structure optimization problems. This is an important characteristic that leads to better confidence in the final solution from a single run of the algorithm for an optimization problem.

Keywords- Harris hawks optimization algorithm, Discrete structural optimization, Optimization of truss structures.


Al-Bazoon, M. (2021). Harris Hawks Optimization for Optimum Design of Truss Structures with Discrete Variables. International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences, 6(4), 1157-1173. https://doi.org/10.33889/IJMEMS.2021.6.4.069.

Conflict of Interest

For this publication, the author ensures that there is no conflict of interest to declare.


The author wishes to show his appreciation to the editor and reviews for their valuable suggestions.


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